Audiences and Institutions

Cross Media – Different medias (TV, radio, print, film) or different media institutions (studios, newspapers, TV networks)

Convergence  – The joining of 2 technologies or products to promote a product

UK film council – Lottery funded

  • The UK film council was set up by the Labour goverment as a non-department public body in 2000
  • The purpose was to develop and promote the film industry within the UK. Along with BBC films and Film4, the film council was the main port of call for film makers trying to get feature films off the ground, epecially if those films outside the mainstream, or ‘specialised’
  • The council recieved around £15m funding per year
  • Funded by the national lottery, it challened about £160m into more than 900 fims over the last 10 years, including Bend it like Beckham, This is England
  • The UK film council closed in April 2011
  • The BFI (British Film Insititution) has taken over its core funtions : distribution of the lottery funding, production, supporting distribution and exhibitions through prints and advertisment funds
  • BFI increased the lottery fund by 20% from £15m to £18m in 2011/2012

Screening British films nationwide

  • Studios are selective about where and when they release their films, e.g a Bollywood film would not do as well in a area where the population is 99% white.
  • Looking for Eric is a good example of different ways of marketing in different localities and for audiences

Digital is the future

  • The digitalisation of film makes it cheaper to produce, distribute and exhibit
  • Independant film makers can produce larger numbers of prints at a smaller cost, therefore they will not lose as much money if the film does not attract such a large audience in cinemas
  • For Shifty, the cinema exhibtion was mainly an advertising method





Representation of Social Class


Class and Status on TV

The representation of people from different classes has changed massively through the years. Up to the 1950s, the upper classes were the people mostly shown in TV and film. This was because the were some of the only people who were able to afford to go the cinema and own a television. As more and more people from the working class background watch TV, more and more TV programs would include working class characters.

Upper Classes – often shown as rich, clever, snobby, very posh (e.g. Made in Chelsea)

Middle Classes – often shown as “normal”, good family values, well behaved (e.g. My Family)

Working Classes – often shown as poorer, less happy, less intelligence, but with strong community links (e.g. Coranation Street)

Lower / Under Classes – Often being shown as being Criminals, no family values, no community links, bad parents etc. (e.g. Shameless)

The British Social Class System

The British Society has often been considered to be divided into three main groups of classes :

The upper class – Often people with inheriated wealth, includes some of the oldest families, with many of them being entitled as artisocrats

The middle class – The majority of the population of Britain. They include industrialists, professionals, business people and shop owners

Lower or working class – People who are agricultrual, mine and factory workers.


Film Industry

What am i supposed to know for Section B?:

  • Production
  • Distribution
  • Marketing
  • Exhibition

Skyfall (2012) Mainstream        vs.         Shifty (2007) British independant

Marketing –

Product Placement:

  • Tom Ford suits (007 tailored suits)
  • Sony Vaio (laptops etc.)
  • Heineken (beer)
  • Coke Zero
  • Visit Britain (web)
  • London 2012

Skyfall Budget – £93.7 mil

£15o mil

£ = beer £28m

The first James Bond film to be screened in IMAX venues – $3.5 million

50th anniversary of the James Bond series


Hollywood Vs British Indie

  • Hollywood is the dominant industry
  • British independant movies dont have the budget
  • Digitalisation of cameras and projectors, British cinema can operate in a more cost effective way and target national audiences.
  • Microwave scheme allow micro budget british films
  • Guarantee an audience

What attracted Metro



PEA – Age



The props in the scene of skins suggests that teenagers are always up to no good, This is shown by them doing drugs and drinking alcohol. This shows that the teenagers are going againist the law and this gives the impression that they are trouble makers and dont listen to the people in charge.

The costume of the female teenage girl in this scene is a short dress and fishnets and this suggests that

Representation of Age

Stereotypes for teenage men:

  • Violent – Negative
  • Lazy – Negative
  • Moody – Negative
  • Rebellious – Negative
  • Rude – Negative
  • Aggressive – Negative

Stereotypes for teenage women:

  • Wears makeup – Problematic
  • Self-Centred – Negative
  • Moody – Negative
  • Dumb – Negative

Stereotypes for the Elderly:

  • Burden – Negative
  • Rich
  • Dependant on others
  • Racist – Negative
  • Golf
  • Baking
  • Sweet – Positive
  • Slow (physically and mentally)
  • Cynical

Where do stereotypes of age come from?

  • Personal expirences
  • TV – Soap Operas, The whole cast of Gossip Girl

The term teenager only came around in the 1950s.

Stereotypes for differnt ages:

Children – innocent, naive, pure, sweet, helpless – eg Bart or Lisa Simpson

Teenagers – hate school, criminals – eg Skins

20s/30s – age for love, parties, fun, making money, in films the heros are often this age – eg The group of muskerers

Middle aged – unattractive, uncool, boring lives, dominant over others –  Breaking Bad

Elderly – slow, weak, ill, confused, powerless, not important eg modern family


Key Terms:

  • Reinforce
  • Challenge
  • Ideology – A set of beliefs of characteristics of a social group or individual

Hebdige theory

Teenagers as Trouble

Teenagers as fun

Brake Theory

Respectable (alternative)

Delinquent (dominant)

Burton Theory

Burton argues that teen subculture is opposition to the dominant culture (of adults). He uses the term ‘Problemistation’ to describe the idea of youths as problems.